1. Database Engine:
This is the core component which stores, manipulates & manage data. Other features include relational, XML, full text search and replication.
2. Integration Services:
Integration services is responsible for ETL Layer. ETL stands for Extraction, Transformation & Loading. This component is used for extracting the data from the source system, transform accordingly and load it into the database in the 1st component.
3. Analysis Services:
Once the data is available in 1st component via the ETL layer in the second component, not all the shcema is in ready to us and hence those are processed and managed by creating Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) analysis and data mining model for Business Intelligence purpose.
4. Reporting Services:
Whatever transformation is done in 2nd component & 3rd component we need an end user component to see the result and this is achieved as interactive, tables, graphical representations, charts through Reporting services.
The following are the available tools in SQL Server
1. SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
This is the management tool to manage all the core components which we saw above.
2. Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS)
This tool allows a developer to develop cubes (Analysis Services), integration service packages, reports.
3. SQL Server Configuration Manager
Managing the connectivity components such as Server Network Utility, Client Network Utility, Service Manager is done using this tool. All the connectivity components was separate features in 2005 version and backwards.
4. SQL Server Profiler
All the events occured in SQL Server can be traced and saved for future use using this tool.
5. Database Engine Tuning Advisor
Shortly called DTA is used too analyse the load on the engine. The recommendations provided by DTA can be used to improve the query performance for the same query.
6. Command Prompt Utilities
This is another powerful utility that can be accessed via DOS prompt. You can go to cmd.exe and execute the following commands that have its unique magic work done without the knowledge of T-SQL.
A. bcp – bulk copy of data
B. dta – Database Engine Tuning Advisor
C. dtexec – configure and execute SSIS packages
D. dtutil – Manage SSIS package
E. sqlcmd – command line to execute T-SQL statements
F. rs – Manage Reporting services server
G. rsconfig – manage & configure report server connection
H. rskeymgmt – manage encryption keys on report server
I. sqlagent90 – to start SQL Server Agent
J. SQLdiag – Diagnostic collection by Microsoft
K. sqllogship – Operational tasks like copy, restore, backup operations
L. sqlservr – start and stop the database engine for an instance
M. Ssms – to open SSMS
N. sqlps – to run PowerShell commands
O. tablediff – capable of comparing data from 2 tables in replication topology.